variable cost

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PPC launches new, extended product range despite economic … – Creamer Media’s Engineering News

PPC launches new, extended product range despite economic ….

Posted: Thu, 26 Jul 2018 07:00:00 GMT [source]

These resources are available in limited quantities in eveiy economy, big or small, developed or underdeveloped, rich or poor. Some economies may have more of one or two resources but not all resources. Economy can never operate outside PPC with the given resources and technology. A job guarantee scheme will lead to a rightward shift of PPF.

12.12, , Saraswati Introductory Microeconomics, , Ans. Tea and coffee are substitute goods. An increase in, the price of coffee will cause an increase in demand, for its related good tea. As a result, the demand, curve of tea will shift to the right.

concepts of production possibility frontier and opportunity cost.

This raises for the good whose production is increased. The value of that good can be decided by the point at which supply and demand are equal to one another. Changes within the slope of the PPF are primarily linked to the production prices of the goods within the financial system. Grain costs continued to rise in the Eighties and elevated the prices of manufacturing for all egg producers. At point A on the unique provide curve S1, for instance, 25 million kilos of espresso per month are supplied at a value of $6 per pound. After the rise in supply, 35 million kilos per 30 days are supplied on the similar value (level A′ on curve S2).

  • Therefore PP curve will be a straight line if and only if it is assumed that all the resources are equally efficient in production of both the goods.
  • This curve is more realistic and can be used to represent the market or the economy.
  • When the project is of the first type, the point of the PPC on the y-axis has the maximum capacity utilization.
  • How do the equilibrium price and quantity of a commodity change when price of input, is used in its production changes?
  • As a part of economics it also plays a major role in a country’s economic affairs.

But this type of a curve cannot always be considered and is not realistic as it cannot represent the actual market or the economy. Keeping all these factors in mind, Production possibility curve helps producers to plan accordingly and determine the best product and possibilities of techniques to be used for production. While we usually think of expertise as enhancing production, declines in manufacturing because of issues in technology are also possible.

Assumptions of Production Possibility Curve

What is likely to be the impact of ‘Make in India’ appeal to the foreign investors by the Prime Minister of India, on the production possibilities frontiers of India? It can be explained with the help of the diagram that PP is at full employment level and due to outflow of foreign capital it shifts leftwards P1P1. Thus, the opportunity cost of feeding one horse is 3 goats. Taking into consideration the options available with him, find out the opportunity cost of the farmer of feeding one horse.

Convergence, divergence, and macroevolutionary constraint as … –

Convergence, divergence, and macroevolutionary constraint as ….

Posted: Thu, 25 Aug 2022 07:00:00 GMT [source]

Production possibility curve is also known as Production Possibility Frontier or Production Possibility Boundary. It shows alternative possibilities of two goods that can be produced with the usage of the given resources and techniques of production. The PPC shifts towards the left, when there is a technological degradation and/or decrease in resources with respect to both the goods. The PPC, the opportunity cost increases. And this causes the concave shape of PPC. State any three assumptions on which a production possibilities curve is based.

No, production will take place on PPC, if the resources are either underutilised or inefficiently utilised or both. In such case, production will take place on any point below the curve AB, like point H. Any point below the PP curve, thus highlights the problem of unemployment and inefficiency in the economy. Supply of skilled labour has increased in India causing a rightward shift in the production of IT software. The PPC is a downward sloping curve i.e. from left to right. This is because it indicates that, to increase the production of one commodity, production of another has to be reduced.

Helps to understand economic efficiency in terms of production better. Explains the overall increase in production of both X and Y through technological progress. As per the schedule, in the case of B – an economy can produce 100 kg of butter and 230 kg of sugar.

NCERT  Solutions for Class 12 Micro Economics Chapter-1 Introduction to Economics

Unemployment is reduced due to the measures taken by the government. State its economic value in the context of production possibilities frontier. We defend this statement because scarcity arises as resources are limited. The resources to produce goods and services to satisfy human wants are available in limited quantities.

supply schedule

A change within the value of labor or another factor of production will change the cost of producing any given amount of the good or service. This change in the cost of production will change the amount that suppliers are prepared to supply at any worth. An improve in factor costs should decrease the quantity suppliers will provide at any worth, shifting the supply curve to the left. If we assume that innumerable production possibilities exist between any two-production possibilities schedule, we get the production possibility curve P1 to p6. Points outside the production possibility (e.g. point p) are unattainable as society’s resources of production are not sufficient to give output beyond the curve. Points lying inside the curve like p1 are attainable by the society but at these points resources production are not fully employed.

iii) Solution

Therefore if MRT is constant then the slope the PP curve will be a straight line. A constant MRT implies that all the resources are equally efficient in production of all goods. Therefore PP curve will be a straight line if and only if it is assumed that all the resources are equally efficient in production of both the goods. By converting the schedule into a diagram, we can get the PP curve. Refer to the figure I which is based on the PP schedule. Butter’s production is shown on the x-axis and that of guns on the y-axis.

This shifters of ppcage of sources signifies that producing some goods and providers leaves other goods and companies unproduced. An entrepreneur is an individual who combines the other components of manufacturing – land, labor, and capital – to earn a revenue. The most profitable entrepreneurs are innovators who discover new ways produce goods and companies or who develop new items and services to bring to market. Without the entrepreneur combining land, labor, and capital in new methods, most of the improvements we see round us wouldn’t exist. The central problems of an economy can be explained with the help of PPC.

An increase within the price of DVD rentals doesn’t shift the supply curve in any respect; rather, it corresponds to a motion upward to the best along the supply curve. This schedule suggests that if all resources are thrown into the production of food, a maximum of 500 tons of food can be produced, given the existing technology. If on the other hand, all resources are instead used for producing cars, 25 cars can be produced. In between these two extreme possibilities exist. If we are willing to give up some food, we can have some cars.


We can measure MRT on the PP curve. For example MRT between the possibilities C and D is equal to CG/GD. Between D and E it is equal to DH/HE, and so on. This problem arises because a good or service can be produced by employing many combinations of resources. Any combination of resource to produce is termed as technique of production.

PPC is also called opportunity cost curve because each and every point on PPC measures the opportunity cost of one commodity in terms of sacrificing other commodity. Marginal opportunity cost is an addition to a cost in terms of a number of units of a commodity sacrificed to produce one additional unit of another commodity. By economic growth, we mean that an economy has developed greater capacity to produce larger quantity of goods by acquiring more resources. Graphically, this would be represented by a rightward shift of PPF.

The end result has been an enormous improve in the supply of computer systems, shifting the provision curve to the best. This is due to the increasing alternative value i.e. in accordance with the legislation of increasing alternative price. The U.S. PPF is flatter than the Brazil PPF implying that the opportunity value of wheat in term of sugar cane is decrease within the U.S. than in Brazil.

A reduction in factor costs will increase the amount suppliers will supply at any value, shifting the provision curve to the best. To produce one good or service means forgoing the manufacturing of another. The concept of opportunity price in economics means that the value of the exercise forgone is the opportunity cost of the activity chosen; this cost should affect supply. For example, one opportunity value of producing eggs just isn’t promoting chickens.


Thus, a problem of choice arises. The economic problem of ‘For whom to Produce’ basically focuses on the distribution mix of the final goods and services produced. The distribution of the final goods and services is equivalent to the distribution of National Income among the factors of production such as land, labour, capital and entrepreneur. It is also known as production possibility frontier or transformation curve. Oil pumped out of the ground and used at present will be unavailable in the future.

On the other hand, in the case of C – it produces 150 kg of butter and 200 kg of sugar. Lastly, in the case of D – it can produce 200 kg of butter and 150 kg of sugar. Only two specific goods, namely, ‘X’ and ‘Y’ , are widely produced in an economy in different proportions. Economics is a study of choices made from available alternatives. The alternatives mean opportunities. The producers have the opportunity to produce wheat or rice on a piece of land.